What is peroxisome – Meanings

Peroxisome is a organelle present in cells eukaryotes (with defined cell nucleus) that float in the cytosol and fulfill metabolic functions such as oxidation and the elimination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

Peroxisomes are formed from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria (only in animal cells) and were first discovered by the cytologist and biochemist Christian de Duve (1917-2013), along with lysosomes.

They are called peroxisomes because the first enzymes found in their structure were peroxidases. They are found in the cytosol and are called organelles because they are compartments with specialized functions.

Characteristics of the peroxisome

Peroxisomes are characterized by their ability to change size and form new peroxisomes through division.

Peroxisomes change enzymes to fulfill the necessary metabolic functions of each cell depending on the function of the cell, the most common being urate oxidase and catalase. About 50 different types of enzymes have been identified.

Furthermore, the peroxisome is distributed in the cytoplasm through the microtubules of the cell’s cytoskeleton and matures by incorporating the proteins synthesized by the ribosomes.

Peroxisome in animal cell

Peroxisomes in animal cells are formed both in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and in the mitochondria. Some of the metabolic functions of peroxisomes include lipid metabolism and protection of cells against oxidation.

Peroxisome in plant cell

Peroxisomes in plant cells and fungi are exclusive organelles for the process called ß-oxidation, where carbon dioxide (CO2) residues are oxidized for photorespiration.

In this sense, photorespiration is the use of oxygen (O2) and the release of carbon dioxide (CO2).

See also Photosynthesis.

Peroxisome and lysosome

The peroxisome and lysosome were both discovered by Christian de Duve in 1965 and are both found in the cytosol.

The peroxisome carries out the chemical reactions necessary for oxidation and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

On the other hand, lysosomes are considered the recycling center of the cell, maintaining the acidic PH for the decomposition of cellular waste.

Peroxisome and glyoxysomes

Glyoxysomes are called peroxisomes that are present in seeds and store reserve substances. These glyoxysomes will transform fatty acids into sugar during germination.

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