tsunami

Tsunami, also known as tidal wave, is a large wave that is formed due to a volcanic explosion or an earthquake and moves at high speed across the sea surface. Tsunamis have enormous destructive power and gain strength when they reach the Coastal Region, forming waves more than 30 meters high.

The word tsunami is of Japanese origin, tsu means “port” and namis It expresses “waves”, therefore, waves of the port, tsunamis do not necessarily happen in the port but can be anywhere on the coast, especially in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as in the Mediterranean Sea.

Despite how difficult it is to predict when a tsunami may occur, some countries with higher incidences and risks of suffering these phenomena are: Chile, the United States, Japan, Mexico, Ecuador, have a warning center although it is not always possible to have the Certainty when it will happen does allow us to calculate the epicenter of a large underwater earthquake and the time it may take for a tsunami to arrive. To facilitate prevention, it is possible to use underwater sensors, radio telemetry, satellite telemetry, among other means to try to measure the behavior of waves and sizes.

See also Tectonic plates.

Generally, the waves do not affect a single place, they move according to the maritime currents, for example: the earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1960, it produced a tsunami that killed approximately 5,000 people and 14 hours later it reached Hawaii where it killed more people and 9 hours later it arrived in Japan causing more deaths. Likewise, in 2004 in Indonesia, 11 countries suffered the ravages of the tsunami, such as: India, Indonesia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, among others.

See also Earthquake or Earthquake.

There are films and documentaries where the terrible consequences of a tsunami are narrated and demonstrated, as happens in the film the impossibledirected by JA Bayona, based on the true story of the 2004 Indian tsunami.

In English, the word tsunami is translated the same way tsunami.

Causes of the tsunami

Tsunamis can be caused by underground landslides or volcanic eruptions. The vast majority of tsunamis occur due to large earthquakes under the water surface, with a hypocenter at the depth point and produce the abrupt vertical movement of the seabed, so that the ocean water is propelled out of its equilibrium. normal and when it tries to regain its balance it generates waves. Tsunami waves travel along the ocean at about 805 km per hour and, on the high seas, they are practically imperceptible, but when they approach land, they begin to grow in height and energy, destroying everything around them.

Normally, before the arrival of the tsunami, the sea recedes and it can take 5 to 10 minutes for the main wave to arrive, as well as hours for the tsunami to reach land. Also, before the tsunami, as a warning to society, micro-tidal waves, low tides, high tides may occur until the sea completely retreats and we only wait for the great wave with the capacity to destroy everything that is presented to it in its path.

Tsunami consequences

They devastate entire cities. Floods of extensive coastal territories. They destroy the seabed. Lowland vegetation can be destroyed to a considerable extent, such as mangroves and grasses. They can cause the extinction of certain rare animals, such as sea turtles.

Types of tsunami

Mild, the waves are no higher than a meter in height caused by an earthquake considered minor. Moderate, of magnitude III, the waves are greater than a meter and a half in height caused by strong tremors greater than 7 degrees. Destructive or strong, magnitude IV , generate waves 10 – 15 meters high, caused by 8.5 degrees on the Richter scale.

Tsunami and earthquake

The earthquake is the tremor or shaking of the Earth’s crust, caused by internal displacements, which is transmitted over long distances in the form of waves. The earthquake is a natural phenomenon characterized by a strong tremor in the earth resulting from collisions of tectonic plates, geological faults or volcanic activity. Tsunamis are caused by underwater earthquakes that produce movements of sea water, as mentioned above.

It is noteworthy that not all earthquakes generate tsunamis, only those of considerable magnitude that occur under the seabed and are capable of deforming it.