Questions and Answers Guano and Saltpeter War

1. The Chilean argument about the secret Peruvian-Bolivian Treaty of 02-06-1873 was that it was:
A) A ridiculous attitude in the diplomatic and political field.
B) The timorous attitude of two lower states.
C) A diplomatic failure by not achieving the alliance with Argentina.
D) A secret plan between Peru and Bolivia to attack Chile.
E) The legitimate union between two States to defend themselves from their expansionist plans.
For the Chileans who had an expansionist and plundering plan, the secret Peruvian-Bolivian Treaty was an obstacle to their interests. Then they started a campaign of slander and distortion of it. They slandered that this Treaty was a secret plan between Peru and Bolivia to attack Chile, which was false. This Treaty was only defensive against the warlike pretensions of this country.
2. When the war broke out between Peru and Chile, its rulers were:
A) Luís la Puerta – Joaquín Prieto.
B) Mariano Ignacio Prado – Aníbal Pinto.
C) Nicholas of Pierola – Santa Maria
D) Francisco García Calderón –Manuel Baquedano.
E) Mariano Ignacio Prado-Diego Portales.
On April 5, 1879, Chile declared war on Peru. General Mariano Ignacio Prado was the president of Peru and Mr. Aníbal Pinto of Chile.
3. The pretext that Chile used to make the Lavalle mission fail was:
A) Peruvian expansionism.
B) Peru’s rejection of a diplomatic solution.
C) The beginnings of the Peruvian offensive in the south.
D) Chile’s expansionist desire.
E) The declaration of war, from Bolivia to Chile.
Chile, in complicity with England, had drawn up a plan since 1870 to seize their nitrate territories from Bolivia and Peru. Based on this plan, they invaded the Bolivian port of Antofagasta, which forced Peruvian diplomatic intervention. Peru then sent the diplomatic mission of Dr. José Antonio de Lavalle. Lavalle skillfully got Chile to accept arbitration and avoid the outbreak of War as much as possible. But Bolivia on March 1, 1879 declared war on Chile. This was the pretext for Chile to frustrate Lavalle’s efforts.
4. Bolivian ruler who decreed the payment to the Chilean company of Antofagasta of a tax of 0.10 cents for each quintal of saltpeter:
In February 1879, the president of Bolivia, General Hilarión Daza, decreed that the Chilean nitrate and railway company of Antofagasta pay 0.10 cents of peso for each quintal of Bolivian nitrate that it exports through the port of Antofagasta.

5. Chile invaded and took the port of…………………….from Bolivia.
As the Chilean company did not pay the taxes that the Bolivian Government had established, it warned that it would give until February 14, 1879, for the respective payment, otherwise it would proceed to the expropriation and auction of the company. On February 14, Chile responded by occupying the port of Antofagasta and invading Atacama.
6. Naval units of Peru and Chile that collapsed in the naval combat of Iquique.
B) Independence and the Emerald.
D) La Unión and Chacabuco.
E) Manco Capac and the Loa.
The Naval Battle of Iquique took place on May 21, 1879. The Huascar sank the “Esmeralda”, but unfortunately the Peruvian Frigate the “Independencia” weighing 2,000 MT and the newest of our units collided with a rock in Punta Gruesa and sank.
7. To neutralize the displacement of the Peruvian navy, in May 1879 the Chilean high command ordered:
A) Sink the Peruvian fleet anchored in Callao
B) Block the port of Iquique.
C) End the Huascar raids.
D) The capture of the Huascar.
E) Eliminate Miguel Grau.
The Chilean Navy’s main objective was to annihilate the strongest ships in Peru. This is the “Huascar” and “La Independencia”. For this purpose, at the beginning of May they headed to the Port of Callao, but they crossed paths in Altamar with the “Huascar” and the “Independencia” that were escorting President Prado and were taking soldiers to the Arica barracks. When they arrived here it was reported that the Peruvian Port of Iquique was blocked by the Chilean ships the “Esmeralda” and the “Covadonga”.
8. The last commander of the Huascar, in the tragic Naval combat of Angamos on October 8, 1879; he was:
The Huascar commanders who sacrificed their lives in the glorious combat of Angamos were:
-Pedro Manuel Garezón. This last commander.
9. After Independence sunk and the “Huascar” was captured, the Chilean high command decided as a strategic step:
C) The destruction of the Peruvian North Coast.
Having captured the Huascar in Angamos and having military maritime control of the South Pacific of America, Chile proceeded to invade the coastal province of Tarapacá.
10. The political crisis that Chile experienced in July 1879, resulting in the dismissal of Commander Williams Rebolledo and the Minister of War, General Vergara, was a consequence of:
A) the capture of the Chilean transport: “Rimac” on July 23, 1879.
B) that the Huascar cut the submarine cable.
C) that El Huascar sank the Esmeralda.
D) the Huascar raids.
E) the Chilean defeat in Iquique.
On July 23, 1879, the Huascar captured the best Chilean transport: “El Rimac”. She brought him to Callao with 700 horses, weapons and other supplies. This caused a deep political crisis in Chile. The commanding general of the Navy and the Minister of War were dismissed. The Government feared his overthrow.
11. The Navy commander Aurelio García y García in the Pacific War was in command of:
The Corvette Unión was under the command of Captain Aurelio García García. The Independence Frigate of Captain Juan Guillermo More. The Huascar, commanded by Captain Miguel Grau Seminario, who at the same time was General Commander of the Peruvian Navy.
12. The southern land campaign begins when Chilean troops invade:
The Southern land campaign began on November 2, 1879 when 10,000 Chileans under the command of General Erasmo Escala invaded the Peruvian cove of Pisagua.
13. Upon invading Pisagua the Chileans immediately took control:
A) From the Atacama to Arica railway.
B) From the Railway that connected them with the drinking water wells.
C) From the saltpeter of Tarapacá.
D) Guano and saltpeter from Antofagasta.
E) From the Loa and Paposo valleys.
When invading Pisagua despite the heroic resistance of Peruvian and Bolivian soldiers, the first thing the Chileans did was control the railway that allowed them access to the water wells so useful in that desert region. The Peruvians made the mistake of not destroying the railroad.
14. When the Chileans invaded Pisagua, the Allied high command outlined the following military tactics:
A) Leave Tarapacá and retreat towards Arica.
B) Attack energetically from Arica to Pisagua.
C) Attack energetically from Tarapacá.
D) Attack simultaneously from Arica and Tarapacá.
E) Organize guerrilla warfare.
When the powerful Chilean army invaded Pisagua, it left the allied army, cornering the Peruvian forces towards a place called “pozo almonte”. It was then that the commander General Juan Buendía proposed to simultaneously attack Chile from Tarapacá (Buendía and Suárez) and from the north, Arica, the Bolivian General Hilarión Daza.
15. After the Battle of Tarapacá, why didn’t Peru manage to expel the Chileans and take control of the coastal province?
A) The Divisionism between the troops of Cáceres and Iglesias.
B) The lack of communications from military commands.
C) The division of the northern and southern troops.
D) The lack of a solid and consistent army.
E) Due to the unexpected runs of the Peruvian senior staff.
The Battle of Tarapacá was a Pyrrhic victory. The lack of cavalry did not allow the Chileans to be pursued and annihilated; on the other hand, the Peruvian army was short of ammunition. In practice, Chile had control of the entire coastal province, and Peru did not have sufficient military forces to expel the Chileans. They had won in Tarapacá but had also been blocked and isolated.
16.How did Nicolás de Pierola take power during the war with Chile, on December 22, 1879?
A) Given the resignation of Luís la Puerta.
B) By general elections.
D) Appointed by the Congress of the Republic.
E) By a special convention that met in Callao.
On December 22, 1879, counting on the support of the garrisons of Callao and Ica, Nicolás de Pierola, who for years had coveted the presidency at any price, took advantage of Luís La Puerta’s weakness and carried out a coup d’état.
17. Gregorio Albarracín was the character who stood out during the land campaign in the Pacific War:
A) By directing the Tacna rioters to harass the Chileans.
B) Together with Isaac Recavarren in the Battle of Pisagua.
C) By dying heroically in the Battle of the Angels.
D) In ​​the battle of Tarapacá.
E) By directing the mining of Morro de Arica.
20,000 Chilean soldiers in 16 transports landed at the Port of Ilo to take Tacna and Arica. In Tacna they encountered the heroic resistance of Colonel Gregorio Albarracin who organized the Montoneras and guerrillas.
18. Before the sacrifice of Arica, Francisco Bolognesi trusted in the reinforcement that had to come from Cusco in charge of:
Although it may seem illusory, the expert and heroic Francisco Bolognesi was confident of victory, since he had neutralized the cavalry attack in Chacalluta and his 5 batteries had damaged four Chilean battleships. This encouraged him so much that he trusted in the reinforcement that Nicolás de Pierola should send from Lima and from Cusco the forces of Colonel Pedro Leiva should arrive with 4,000 soldiers, which never arrived.
19. The battle of bleeding in the war with Chile corresponds to the campaign of:
In the Breña campaign in the Peruvian Sierra, the following battles took place; Bleed, Pucara, Marcavalle, Concepción, San Pablo and Huamachuco.
20. The betrayal of General Miguel Iglesias determined the Peruvian defeat in the battle of:
General Miguel Iglesias betrayed the Peruvian resistance in the Breña campaign from the so-called cry of montan, to protect his interests in Gamonal, harming thousands of Cajamarcan peasants who hoped to have small plots of land. The most deplorable thing about Iglesias was that he helped the Chileans defeat Cáceres in the Battle of Humachuco. He preferred to ally himself with the Chileans than give some land to the Peruvian Indian.