Questions and Answers about National Reconstruction

1. The Grace contract was a document signed by the government of Andrés Avelino Cáceres with imperialism:
The Grace Contract was an Agreement signed during the first government of Andrés Avelino Cáceres with the House of Bondholders of the Peruvian external debt represented by the British house Grace. It meant the beginning of capitalist penetration from Great Britain to Peru.
2. The deadline for holding the plebiscite with Chile after the signing of the Treaty of Ancón was met during the government of:
A) Andrés Avelino Cáceres
C) Remigio Morales Bermúdez
The Treaty of Ancón signed with Chile in 1883, stipulated the holding of a plebiscite with Chile to decide the nationality of Tacna and Arica. This plebiscite was to be held 10 years after the Treaty was ratified (1884), that is, in 1894, a period that was met while President Remigio Morales Bermudez was in the presidency of the republic.
3. During the government of Miguel Iglesias there was an anti-feudal peasant movement led by:
B) The Gutierrez Brothers
During the government of Miguel Iglesias, the Huaraz anti-feudal peasant uprising led by Pedro Pablo Atusparia took place, which would later end in failure.
4. The Peruvian Corporation was a British company in charge of the administration of:
A) The northern oil fields
E) The saltpeter deposits
After signing the Grace Contract, the British proceeded to create the Peruvian Corporation whose purpose was the administration of the railways that passed into their hands for 66 years.

RPTA.: D

5. Peruvian politician who led the anti-cacerista movement of 1895:
C) Remigio Morales Bermúdez
Nicolás de Piérola, at the head of the National Coalition and the Montonero guerrillas, led the anti-Cacerista revolution of 1895 that caused the fall of the Cáceres regime.
6. Political party that was part of the National Anti-Cacero Coalition:
B) Civic Union Party
C) Constitutional Party
D) National Union Party
Of the parties mentioned, only the Civic Union Party was part of the National Coalition of 1895, whose objective was the fall of Cacerismo.
7. Once the Pacific War was over, Peru was bled dry by a new civil war led by:
As soon as the war with Chile ended, Peru was the scene of a new civil war whose protagonists were Generals Andrés Avelino Cáceres and President Miguel Iglesias, an event that ultimately ended with the fall of Iglesias.
8. The salt tobacco tax was a tax applied by Nicolás de Piérola during the period called:
C) Aristocratic republic
The salt tobacco tax was a tax applied by Nicolás de Piérola at the beginning of the aristocratic republic (1895-1919)
9. It is a work by Morales Bermúdez during the 2nd militarism:
A) Established the Peruvian gold pound
B) He promulgated the law of Habeas Corpus
C) Signed the Grace Contract
D) Signed the treaty of Ancón
E) General decree of 8 hours of work
The Habeas Corpus law was one of the measures applied by the Crnl. Remigio Morales Bermudez during his government (1890-1894).
10. During the government of López de Romaña, Peru chose to break diplomatic relations with the neighboring country of:
The breaking of diplomatic relations with Chile was an event that occurred during the government of Eduardo López de Romaña motivated by the brutal and infamous policy of Chileanization applied by the Mapochinos in Tacna and Arica.
11. Government that faced the worst international crisis of the aristocratic republic:
B) William Billinghurst
The First government of Augusto B. Leguía (1908-1912) had to face the worst international crisis that Peru had with our neighbors. We were on the verge of having a warlike confrontation with many of our neighbors, which was avoided due to diplomatic arrangements in many of the cases harmful to Peru.
12. Manuel Candamo’s interim successor upon his death was:
C) William Billinghurst
Upon the painful death of Manuel Candamo, the presidency of the republic was temporarily assumed by Mr. Serapio Calderón.
13. Politically, the period of the Aristocratic Republic was characterized by the absolute predominance of the party:
The aristocratic republic was also known as 2nd civilism, this due to the total hegemony of the civilist Party in power for almost a quarter of a century (1895 – 1919).
14. Historical event of an international nature that had a negative impact on Peru, causing the crisis of the Aristocratic Republic:
B) Second World War
C) First World War
D) Soviet revolution
E) Crisis of capitalism of 1929
The crisis of the aristocratic republic occurred due to the negative impact produced by the First World War (1914-1918). This event triggered the fall of civilism from power and the establishment of the Patria Nueva with Leguía.
15. The first Pardismo was characterized because its management gave a notable boost to the sector:
José Pardo’s first government is basically characterized by the great boost given to the education sector, which is manifested in the large investment in educational infrastructure made by the regime.
16. Noted lawyer who analyzed the problems of workers during the first government of José Pardo, proposing beneficial legislation for this social sector:
A) Manuel Gonzales Prada
B) José Carlos Mariátegui
C) José Matías Manzanilla
D) Victor Andrés Belaunde
E) Victor Raúl Haya de la Torre
José Matías Manzanilla was the lawyer who made a study of the problems of the labor sector and then proposed labor legislation that would give certain benefits to this downtrodden social sector.
17. He overthrew the reformist regime of William Billinghurst:
The reformist regime of Guillermo Billinghurst (1912-1914) was overthrown by Colonel Oscar R. Benavides due to his populist policies, which put the interests of the civilist oligarchy at risk.
18. It is a measure of social significance applied by Billinghurst in favor of the unionized proletariat:
A) Work accident law
B) General 8-hour work day
One of the most important measures implemented by Billinghurst in favor of the unionized proletariat was granting them the right to strike.
19. The university movement that emerged at the end of the aristocratic republic was led by:
A) José Carlos Mariátegui
D) Victor Raul Haya de la Torre
The university student movement that emerged at the end of the aristocratic republic, in protest of the prevailing status quo and under the influence of Córdova’s university reform, had its most conspicuous leader and leader in Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre. He would later become the founder of APRA.
20. Civil leader who caused the fall of the aristocratic republic by overthrowing José Pardo y Barreda in 1919:
A) Luis M. Sánchez Cerro
The serious social and economic crisis of the aristocratic republic in 1919 was taken advantage of and capitalized on by Augusto B. Leguía to take power by storm, overthrowing the second government of José Pardo y Barreda by coup d’état.

RPTA.: E