Parts of the brain and their functions

The brain is the part of the central nervous system found inside the skull. In humans, two large portions can be distinguished, separated at the top by a fissure: the interhemispheric fissure.

He left and right hemisphere They are connected at the base by a structure called hard bodywhich allows communication between them.

Although some brain functions may be preferentially located in one hemisphere than the other, both hemispheres redundantly share functions.

Cerebral cortex and medulla

The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of the brain. It is a folded sheet, easily recognizable by the grooves and mounds it presents. It is composed mainly of gray matter, made up of a considerable number of nerve cells.

Below the crust is the brain marrow, composed of white matter, a set of nerve fibers. It is also called oval center.

Cerebral fissures and gyri

The cerebral cortex presents a series of irregular elevations, delimited by more or less deep depressions or grooves. The elevations are called convolutions and the separations between them are called fissures or grooves.

They can be distinguished on the external side of the cerebral cortex:

The Sylvian interlobular fissure; Rolando’s interlobular fissure; The external perpendicular interlobular fissure.

These fissures allow the delimitation of the cerebral lobes.

See also Brain.

Brain lobes

Location of the cerebral lobes.

Each cerebral hemisphere has areas delimited by fissures, called lobes. These are the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe.

frontal lobe

The frontal lobe is located at the front of each hemisphere, above the eyes and in front of Rolando’s fissure. He is responsible for:

Voluntary control of skeletal muscles. Personality, Intellectual process. Verbal communication.

parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is located in the upper posterior part of each hemisphere. It is delimited behind by the external perpendicular fissure, in front by the Rolandic fissure and below by the Sylvian fissure. It is responsible for:

Skin and muscle sensations. Understanding and vocal expression.

Occipital lobe

The occipital lobe is located at the back and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere, behind the external perpendicular fissure. It is the coordination center for:

eye movements. The correlation of visual images. Conscious visualization.

Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is located at the base of the brain at the level of the ears and below the Sylvian fissure. He is involved in:

the interpretation of auditory sensations. Visual and auditory memory.

Hard body

The corpus callosum is a sheet of white substance which is located at the base of the brain, at the bottom of the interhemispheric fissure. It connects the two cerebral hemispheres to each other. It is essentially made up of nerve fibers in a transverse direction, that is, fibers that leave from a point in one hemisphere and end at the symmetrical point in the opposite hemisphere.

cerebral ventricles

The cerebral ventricles are cavities within the brain where cerebrospinal fluid is produced. There are three ventricles:

two sideswhich go from the frontal to the occipital lobe,
a middle ventricle: in the midline between the optic thalami.

See also:

How to cite: “Parts of the brain and their functions.” In: Available in: https:///partes-del-cerebro/ Consulted: