Meaning of Ibidem

What is Ibidem:

Ibid It is a Latin word that can be translated into Spanish as ‘in the same place’ or ‘right there’. It is also often used according to its abbreviation: ibid.

Ibid It is frequently used in printed texts, especially of an academic nature. (books, theses, research, monographs), where the use of bibliography and a reference system is necessary to facilitate the reader’s identification of the sources from which the information has been extracted. As such, it is used in indexes, notes or citations.

The purpose of using ibidem is to refer the reader to the immediately preceding bibliographical reference. It is a way to save space in the writing and avoid filling a text with redundant information.

Used under the criteria of APA style manual (American Psychological Association), is located within the body of the text, immediately after the phrase or content cited, in parentheses and followed by the page number to which it refers, if there is one.

Used in others traditional methodscan be located in a footnote, referring to the immediately preceding reference.

Thus, in a succession of footnotes, ibidem is only written when the immediately preceding note refers to the same text. This is done regardless of whether the notes are on the same page or several pages apart. For example:

Guillermo Pérez Mendoza, Fundamentals of Law, Mexico, Editorial Lex, 1968, p. 696.Ibidem, p. 567.

Ibidem and idem

It may happen that we cite two different works that, however, have the same author. In this case, idem (also abbreviated as id.), which translates ‘the same’, can be used to replace the author’s name, but also copying the rest of the data. For example:

Roberto Bolaño, Chilean Night, Barcelona, ​​Editorial Anagrama, 2000, p. 99.Idem., Nazi literature in America, Barcelona, ​​Seix Barral, 1996, p. 23.

See also Idem.

Ibidem and op. cit.

Sometimes, between ibidem and the note referred to there is a note on another cited work. In that case, instead of ibidem, write op. cit. (Abbreviation of operate citato), which means ‘in the cited work’, and refers to the previously cited work of the same author. For example:

Roberto Bolaño, Chilean Night, Barcelona, ​​Editorial Anagrama, 2000, p. 99.Gabriel Salazar and Julio Pinto, Contemporary history of Chile, Santiago de Chile, LOM editions, 1999, p. 46.Roberto Bolaño, op. cit., p. 65.

Ibidem and loc. cit.

In the event that a citation is exactly the same as the immediately preceding one, that is, it refers to the same author, work and page, loc must be used. cit., abbreviation of crazy quotewhich means ‘in the aforementioned place’. For example:

Gabriel Salazar and Julio Pinto, Contemporary history of Chile, Santiago de Chile, LOM editions, 1999, p. 46.Loc. cit.