What is education

Education is the process by which knowledge, habits, customs and values ​​of a society are transmitted to the next generation. Education also includes the assimilation and practice of the rules of courtesy, delicacy and civility.

Hence, in popular language, the practice of these socialization habits are described as signs of a good education.

In the technical sense, education is the systematic process of development of the physical, intellectual and moral faculties of the human being, in order to better integrate into society or into one’s own group. That is, it is a learning to live.

Education comes from Latin educere which means ‘to take out’, ‘to extract’, and I will educate which means ‘form’, ‘instruct’.

Types of education

Education is a universal and complex phenomenon of social life, essential for the continuity of cultures. It encompasses a diversity of experiences and modalities, which we can summarize in three types elemental: the informal educationthe Informal education and the formal education.

These three types are the broadest, since within them is the entire universe of educational models, be it by sector, modality, area of ​​knowledge, etc.

Informal education

It is that which is received through agents of everyday life. For examplethe education that is taught in the family or in the community, which involves the transmission of socialization habits, norms, values, traditions, hygiene, etc.

Informal education

Informal education are those systematic educational initiatives that are not conducive to titlebut that allow the training of people in different trades or areas of knowledge.

It can encompass the set of alternative academies of arts and crafts intended for mere enjoyment, personal improvement or job training. For example, training in trades such as automotive mechanics, electricity, carpentry or masonry; craft and artistic training, etc.

Formal education

Formal education refers to the systematic and programmed training that is provided in institutes and educational centers. Whether public or private, for children, young people and/or adults, with a view to developing skills (intellectual, physical, artistic, motor, etc.) and attitudes (responsibility, leadership, camaraderie, prosociality, etc.) necessary for development social.

Due to its strategic role in society, formal education is leading to title. This means that it culminates with the issuance of a certificate or diploma endorsed by the competent authoritiesduly recognized by the state.

Types of formal education

Formal education covers a wide universe of interests and objectives according to the age group of the population, as well as the development needs present in the socio-political context. It can be classified in various ways. Let’s know the most important ones.

Types of formal education according to the level or degree of instruction

According to the age level and the objective of teaching, formal education is classified into:

Preschool education

Preschool education is that which is taught in the first years of childhood, approximately between 0 and 6 years of age. It corresponds to the stage commonly known as kindergarten either kindergarten.

During this stage, children receive support for the development of sociability, motor skills and coordination. For example: following instructions through play, outlining, coloring, modeling with plasticine, cutting, etc.

Primary education

Primary education is oriented towards the teaching of reading and writing, that is, the literacy process of individuals, as well as the acquisition of tools for learning and training in values. Primary education is usually aimed at children between approximately 7 and 12 years of age. Corresponds with the call basic education.

Secondary education

Secondary education is aimed at obtaining basic knowledge of culture in the humanities (language, arts, history), sciences (mathematics, physics, chemistry) and technology. Also to the consolidation of citizenship and the development of responsibility.

During this stage, young people between 12 and 18 years of age (depending on the country) must reinforce their study and work habits based on their future insertion into society.

Higher education

Higher education is that which is taught in universities or specialized institutions with professional recognition (for example, music conservatories).

It has two basic fundamental purposes:

train subjects to practice a certain profession in a specialized work field; train intellectuals who are responsible for investigating, organizing, systematizing, analyzing and disseminating valuable information for the development of society in all areas of knowledge. This is called research work.

Higher education is subdivided into different levels:

Undergraduate or bachelor’s degree: It trains students for professional work in a work area, that is, it professionalizes them.
Specialization: It provides professionals with spaces for specialization in one aspect of the discipline.
Master’s degree: It allows the professional to consolidate their knowledge about the area of ​​specialization through research.
Doctorate: Its purpose is to deepen research skills and promote the formulation of original knowledge.

See also University.

Continuing education

Also known as extension education, continuous training either lifelong education. Continuing education has recently come into force and is one of the modalities of formal education.

Continuing education offers free courses for the training of any person who has achieved a secondary or higher education degree, according to their personal or work interests.

It is considered formal as long as is offered by universities or, failing that, by institutions endorsed by universities through cooperation agreements.

Continuing education covers courses with various methods (theoretical or practical) and modalities (face-to-face, blended or distance learning – online).

After the approval of each course, the participating entities offer a certificate endorsed by a university as a guarantee of academic excellence. However, since they are open to the public, these certificates are not conducive to titlethat is, they are not creditable for validation or revalidation.

Those that usually lead to title are the so-called extension courses, aimed strictly at graduated professionals. These give rise to a professional diploma.

Special education

Within formal education there is a variety known as special education either Special Education. It is aimed at the development of the social, intellectual, physical and psychological potential of subjects with special needs.

Special or differential education programs are aimed at groups with the following conditions:

Subjects with physical exceptionalities: sensory disability: visual or auditory; motor disability; chronic diseases. Subjects with intellectual exceptionalities: intellectual deficiencies; gifted; personality disorders. Subjects with social exceptionalities: Abused minors; Drug-dependent minors; Minors at social risk.

See also Special education.

Types of education according to the sector

According to the sector that administers it, education can be public either private. In either of these two cases, education must correspond to the society project protected by the legal framework of the State as guarantor of the quality and social convenience of the educational project.

Public education

The public education It is that taught through State institutions and usually has a formal nature. Because it is of public interest, the educational service provided by the State is not for profit, but rather its purpose is strategic.

Regarding primary and secondary education, the State must provide education public, free and mandatory.

Regarding university education, depending on the country, the State may offer free universities or, failing that, universities that require a significantly lower investment than private ones. In order to promote the training and promotion of the popular sectors to the professional field.

Private education

The Private education It is that taught in private institutions. It can cover both initiatives in non-formal and formal education, as well as different levels of the latter (basic, intermediate or higher education). These institutions are for-profit.

Types of education according to modality

Modality means the way in which education is delivered, whether it is formal or non-formal education. It is summarized in three essential types:

Classroom education: that which is taught in a physical classroom in real time.
Distance education or online education: In the past it referred to that which was done through a tutoring system by postal mail. Today it refers to education that is practiced in virtual learning environments.
Blended education: that which combines face-to-face education and distance education.

Types of education according to the area of ​​knowledge

Education can also be classified according to the area of ​​knowledge to which it refers, whether it is incorporated into formal education or not. The list can be as extensive as there are areas of interest. We will point out the following cases:

Physical education: It is one that stimulates the development of body conditions (resistance, flexibility, aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, speed, muscular strength) through systematic physical exercise. For example: exercise routine (stretching, warming up, sit-ups, planks, etc.) or team sports (volleyball, soccer, etc.).
Artistic education: It is one aimed at artistic appreciation or the development of artistic skills. For example: music, plastic arts, photography, acting, etc.
Religious education: intended for the training and integration of subjects into the universe of beliefs, values ​​and norms of a specific religion. For example: the catechesis In the catholic church.
Civic education: It is aimed at training subjects in the knowledge of their rights and duties in the context of a given society. For example: citizenship courses for foreigners.
Education for work: It is one intended for the training of subjects in a certain trade. For example: carpentry, mechanics, masonry, cooking, secretarial and typing, etc.
Environmental education: provides training in environmental care and stimulates the development of prevention and protection models for natural heritage. For example: courses…